pe-

Sound Changes

Like prefix me- a number of sound changes occur when prefix pe- is combined with root words in order to facilitate a smooth transition in pronunciation. What the sound will be in a particular word depends on the first sound of the root word following the prefix.

First Letter Inflection Root Word Prefix Pe- Meaning
l
m
ny
r
w
pe + root lupa
musik
nyanyi
rusak
waris
pelupa
pemusik
penyanyi
perusak
pewaris
forgetful person
musician
singer
vandal
heir
Vowel
g
h
pe + ng + root uji
gali
hapus
penguji
penggali
penghapus
examiner
digger
eraser
c
d
j
pe + n + root cuci
didik
jual
pencuci
pendidik
penjual
washer
teacher/educator
seller
b
f
pe + m + root buat
fitnah
pembuat
pemfitnah
maker
detractor
p pe + m + drop ‘p’ + root pahat pemahat sculpture, carver
k pe + ng + drop the ‘k’ + root karang pengarang author, writer, composer
t pe + n + drop the ‘t’ + root tulis
tari
penulis
penari
writer
dancer
s pe + ny + drop the ‘s’ + root sapu penyapu sweeper

Function

The prefix pe- is used to show the doer/person who does the action; someone who is fond of doing; it can be used to explain the character of the person; It can also form a noun that explain what that noun does.

Roots Prefix pe- Meaning Function
nyanyi
tulis
penyanyi
penulis
singer
writer
the doer/person who does the action
cetak
garis
hapus
(mesin)pencetak
penggaris
penghapus
printer
ruler
eraser
to inanimate objects, with which the action is performed
marah
malu
pemarah
pemalu
ill tempered
shy person
to explain the character of the person
balap pembalap racer someone who is fond of doing
main

tenis

pemain
pemain bola
petenis
player
footballer
tennis palyer
to refer to sporting activities
diri pendiri founder
cinta
(men)cinta
pecinta
pencinta
lover
lover
In few cases both have the same meaning.
tunjuk
tunjuk
penunjuk
petunjuk
indicator
instructions, indication
In this case each has different meaning.
jabat
jabat
penjabat(menteri)
pejabat
acting (minister)
official
Both have different meaning which are not related to actor and patient.

Reference:
Indonesian: A Comprehensive Grammar (Routledge Grammars) by James Neil Sneddon(Dec 26, 1996)
Indonesian Reference Grammar, by James Neil Sneddon, 1996
Understanding Indonesian Grammar: A Student’s Reference and Workbook by James Neil Sneddon (Mar 2008)
Indonesian Grammar Made Easy by Liaw Yock Fang(Times Learner – 1996)

BahasaKita © 2017 All Rights Reserved

A Wieke Gur Production