Meaning: program, agenda, event
Application: acara

Apa acara kamu nanti malam?
Apa acara TV malam ini?
Tiap hari dia selalu banyak acara.
Tiap tahun perusahaan saya selalu bikin acara tahunan.
What’s your plan tonight?
What’s on TV tonight?
He is always busy everyday.
Every year my company always hold an annual event.


Meaning: be, exist, be in stock, be available, present; there is, are
Application: ada, adalah, adanya, berada, keadaan, keberadaan, mengadakan, mengada-ada, pengadaan, seada-adanya(seadanya)
Function: Ada is an intransitive verb which differs significantly from other verbs. It has a number of functions.

Function In A Sentence Meaning
It means exist.
It means ‘translated’.
It can be preceded by negative.
When ‘banyak’ occurs ‘ada’ is optional.
It corresponds to ‘some(are)’.
It means ‘own, have’.
To indicate possession.
As an intensifier.
It occurs before the locative preposition ‘di’.
Tuhan ada.
Ada koran di meja.
Di Jakarta tidak ada salju.
Tidak (ada) banyak mobil di jalan hari ini.
Ada yang besar, ada yang kecil.
Saya tidak ada uang.
Buku Ali ada pada saya.
Ia ada menerima surat itu.
Ayah (ada) di kantor
God exists.
There’s a newspaper on the table.
There is no snow in Jakarta.
There are not many cars on the road today.
Some are big, some are small.
I don’t have any money.
I’ve got Ali’s book since.
He did receive the letter.
Father is in the office.


Meaning: just
Synonym: saja, doang
Application: ‘aja’ is colloquial form of ‘saja’

Makannya di kampus aja.
Kami baik-baik saja.
Ke pasar kok bawa dompet doang?
Let’s just eat in the campus.
We are just fine.
Why did you bring the wallet only to the market?


Meaning: will – a particle to mark future events; about, regarding, for – as a conjunction
Application: akan, seakan-akan

Kami akan datang malam ini.
Pagi ini dia lupa akan tugasnya.
Saluran Ramalan Cuaca sudah memberi peringatan tentang akan terjadinya angin ribut(tornado).
Dia menerangkan seakan akan kita anak kecil.
Pekerjaannya sudah selesai akan tetapi dia masih harus menyempurnakannya.
We will come tonight.
This morning he forgets about his tasks.
The weather forecast channel has already begun to warn of impending tornado.
He explain things as if we are kids.
His job is done however he still has to perfect it.


Meaning: very
Synonym: banget, sangat, sekali
Application: The common word for ‘very’ in formal Indonesian is ‘sekali’ which follows the word it refers to. The words ‘sangat’ and ‘amat’ also occur in formal Indonesian preceding the word they qualify where both can occur together for emphasis. The word ‘banget’ does not occur in formal Indonesian but is by far the most common word in colloquial Indonesian.

Orang itu bego sekali.
Orang itu sangat bego.
Orang itu amat bego.
Orang itu bego amat.
Orang itu amat sangat bego.
Orang itu bego banget.
That person is very stupid.


Meaning: child, kid
Synonym: bocah, budak
Application: anak, anak-anak, kekanak-kanakan, peranakan

anak sulung
anak bungsu
anak tiri
anak lelaki
anak perempuan
anak emas
anak jalanan
eldest child
youngest child
step child
son, boy
dughter, girl
the golden child
anak yatim-piatu
anak angkat
anak buah
anak anjing
anak ayam
taman kanak-kanak
foster chiked


Meaning: escort, between; inter(a borrowing word from Sanskrit)
Application: antar, mengantar, pengantar, anter(colloquial)

Saya harus mengantar ibu saya ke dokter.
Antar benua
Kata Pengantar
I have to take my mother to see doctor.
Introductory, preface

Apa or Apakah*

Meaning: what
Application: see below

Function In A Sentence
As a yes-no question.

As a question marker’.

As a question that requires specific information.

To follow a preposition.

As subject of a passive clause followed by ‘yang’.

It mean ‘or’ (synonym=’atau’) in colloquial Indonesian.

Apa saja

Apa-apa(reduplication form)

Apa as a noun or pronoun.

Apakah Anda mau ikut, atau tidak?
Do you want to come, or not?
Apa nama kota ini?
What’s the name of this town?
Anda membaca apa?
What are you reading?
Dia menulis dengan apa?
What did he write with?
Apa(apakah) yang dibicarakan di rapat?
What was discussed at the meeting?
Dia bertanya mereka setuju apa tidak.
He asked if they agreed or not.
Kamu boleh minum apa saja.
You can drink anything.
Dia tidak tahu apa-apa.
He doesn’t know anything.
Apa ini? Ini Apa?
What’s this? What’s this?

*) Reference:
Indonesian Reference Grammar by James Neil Sneddon
Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian by James Neil Sneddon, 2006

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