Partial Reduplication

Partial reduplication occurs only with bases(root words) which begin with a consonant. It involves placing before the base a syllable consisting of the first consonant of the base followed by ‘e’.

This type of reduplication is no longer productive in the language; it occurs with a few bases, mainly nouns, and can not be applied to others. The reduplicated word has a meaning which is the same as that of the single form or related to. Sometimes, as in the first example below, the historical relationship is not obvious:

tangga ladder
jaka bachelor
laki husband
luhur noble
tamu guest
tua old
tetangga neighbor
jejaka bachelor
lelaki man
leluhur ancestor
tetamu guests
tetua elders

Indonesian Reference Grammar By Dr. James N. Sneddon

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