Temporal Marker

Lagi and Sedang

‘Lagi’ (commonly) and ‘sedang’ indicate action in progress in colloquial Indonesian.

Formal Form Colloquial Form Meaning
Saya sedang bosan mengajar.
Kebetulan dia sedang makan di situ.
Waktu itu saya sedang tidak ada.
Saya mendatangi dosen itu lagi.
Gua lagi bosen ngajar.
Kebetulan dia lagi makan di situ.
Waktu itu gua lagi nggak ada.
Gue datengin lagi itu dosen.
I’m bored with teaching.
He happened to be eating there.
At the time I wasn’t there.
I approached that lecturer again.

Udah and Sudah

‘Udah’ is the colloquial form of ‘sudah’ in formal Indonesian. These words indicate that an action has occurred or that a state has been achieved.

Sekarang gua udah punya duit.
Now I have money.

Bakal, Bakalan

These words indicate a future event.

Formal Form Colloquial Form Meaning
Saya pikir saya tidak akan lulus.
Kelihatannya Megawati akan menggantikan Gus Dur.
Gua pikir gua nggak bakal lulus.
Keliatannya Megawati bakalan gantiin Gus Dur.
I thought I’m not going to pass.
It seems that Megawati will replace Gus Dur.

Reference: Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian by James Neil Sneddon, 2006

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