Consonant

How Letter ‘C’, ‘G’, ‘J’ and ‘R’ are Pronounced

C G J R
It is pronounced like the English /ch/ in ‘cheese’ and never as the /c/ in ‘car It is pronounced like the English /g/ in ‘god’; ‘golf’, and never the /g/ in ‘giraffe’ It is pronounced like the English /j/ in ‘Jill’; not the /j/ in ‘John’ This is the rolled or trilled /r/ like the Italian or Spanish in ‘signora’; ‘senora’
cuci – wash gigi – tooth/teeth juga – also rasa – taste
cari – look for guru – teacher jari – finger drama – drama
cucu – grandchild gajah – elephant jujur – honest kabar – news

/h/ is pronounced like the English /h/ in ‘hen’, ‘home’. This can occur in the initial, medial and final positions

H in initial position H in medial position flanked by the same vowels H in medial position flanked by 2 different vowels ‘H’ in final position
/h/ is pronounced clearly. In daily conversation is optionally audible /h/ is pronounced clearly. /h/ is optionally audible. /h/ must be pronounced clearly otherwise the meaning changes.
hujan – rain mohon – request lihat – see/look darah – blood
hari – day leher – neck lahir – born basah – wet
handuk – towel sihir – witchcraft pahit – bitter susah – difficult

Combination of Consonants

Ng Ng + g = Ngg Ny Sy Kh
It is pronounced like the English /ng/ in ‘sing’; ‘king’. It is pronounced like the English /ng/ in ‘tango’; ‘finger’. It is pronounced like the English ‘ny’ in ‘canyon’. It is pronounced like the English ‘sh’ in ‘shark’; ‘she’. It is pronounced like the Scottish ‘ch’ in ‘loch’. The words are mostly of Arabic origin.
ngantuk – sleepy panggil – call banyak – many syarat – requirement akhir – end
tangan – hand tunggu – wait nyamuk – mosquito syair – verse khayal – imagination
datang – arrive enggak – no (informal) nyanyi – sing syukur – thank God khusus – special

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