Meaning and Application : The word ‘loh’ derives from Javanese ‘lho’. Before a statement it is an expression of surprise at what has been said. Occurring after a word it is emphasizes the word and asserts that it is true, it implies the meaning of ” .. you know”.
Synonym: Many times it’s written ‘lho’ in Indonesian publications.
|Lho! kenapa belum dikerjain?
Tinggal di Indonesia ternyata enak lho.
Besok ada rapat jam 9 pagi. Jangan lupa lho!
Gue seneng lho tinggal di Bandung.
Gue nggak mau lho kalo disuruh nyanyi.
|What? Why haven’t you done this?
It’s good to live in Indonesia(you know).
There is a 9 AM meeting tomorrow, (make sure that) you don’t forget!
Ah! I love living in Bandung.
I want you to know that I will decline if anybody ask me to sing.
Meaning: The word ‘mah’ derives from Sundanese. It is not frequently used. It acts to mildly stress or emphasize a word or statement.
|Gue sih/mah nggak mau kalo disuruh nyanyi.
Kalo dipikir pikir mah/sih harganya murah sebenernya.
|I will decline if anybody ask me to sing.
Come to think of it the price is actually cheap.
Meaning and Application: Literally it means ‘yes’. It is used as a discourse marker in a number of positions and has a considerable range of meanings:
- It can follow a statement, turning it into a question and acting as a tag, meaning ‘isn’t it?; do you?; is that so?’;
- It is used in combination with a question word as a stalling device;
- It can be used as an intimacy device when information is given;
- It can be used with apologies, acting as a softener and indicating a hope that the listener will consent;
- In imperative it acts as softener so that the order isn’t felt to be a strong command.
|Semua orang suka nasi goreng ya?
Dia udah punya cewek, ya?
Makanan ini enak yah?
Lagi makan ya?(asking the person who is actually eating)
Nyokap-bokap gue tuh …hmm … gimana yah?
Maaf ya ..
Tolong bawain tas saya ya ..
|Everybody loves fried rice, don’t they?
He’s got a girlfriend, do you think?
This food is delicious, isn’t it?
This parents of mine are … hmm .. how would I describe them?
Take my bag please ..
Meaning: come on, let’s go
Synonym: ayo, mari(in formal Indonesian)
Application: It urges the listener to do something together with the speaker.
*) Reference: Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian by James Neil Sneddon, 2006