Formal Grammar

Expressing “When” and “While”

Kalau “Kalau” is used to say “when” about something that is true in general. Example. Kalau cuaca baik, saya berjalan kaki ke sekolah. When the weather’s good, I walk to school. (i.e. whenever…

Equatives, Comparatives and Superlatives

To say that two things are equal we can use ‘se-’ + adjective. Examples: Kota ini sebesar Sydney. This city is as big as Sydney. Rina setinggi Tuti. Rina is as tall as…

Prepositions After Intransitive Verbs and Adjectives

Many words are followed by ‘pada’. It means “to, towards.” Examples: Dia takut pada anjing. She is scared of dogs Dia lupa pada mimpi buruk itu. She quickly forgot that bad dream. Dia…

Negation: Tidak, Bukan and Belum

There are several words to say “no” or “not” in Indonesian. “Bukan” is used about a thing or a person. Examples: Ini bukan mobil saya. This is not my car Dia bukan guru….

“Yang” with Passive

Sometimes “yang” is followed by a meN- verb. Example: Dia orang yang MEMbantu kita tadi. She is the person who helped us earlier. We said “orang yang MEMbantu”. This is because the “orang”…

Use of “yang” as a Head Word

Yang can “stand for” a thing or a person. Example: Sepatu ini mahal. Yang hitam lebih murah. These shoes are expensive. The black shoes are cheaper. “Yang hitam” means “Sepatu yang hitam.” It…

Use of “yang” to Add Extra Information

The word “yang” is used to add extra information about a thing or a person. In many cases “yang” is optional – used only if we want to emphasise the added information. An…

Topic-Comment Sentences

There is a type of sentence that introduces a topic before you say something about it. Example: You are walking with a friend, and you see a girl. You say: “Gadis itu kakaknya…

‘ter-’ to Describe a State

‘Ter-’ is used with many verbs to describe a state of affairs. Look below: Anda bisa masuk. Pintunya terbuka. You can enter. The door is open. ‘Terbuka’ refers to the state of the…

Passive Type 2

We learned how to make a passive sentence in this way: Uang itu diambil oleh Rina. But we can only do that if the Actor is a third person. (as with ‘Rina’ above)….

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