Sentence Pattern

Subject – Complement

A simple sentence can be built by adding a noun, an adjective, a prepositional phrase or a numeral to complement the subject. There is no verb ‘to be’ in Indonesian. However, because of the influence of English, a sort of copula verb ‘adalah‘ or ‘ialah‘ is often inserted between the subject and comlement.

Dewi peragawati.
Dewi adalah seorang peragawati.
Dia cantik.
Bapak di kantor.
Anaknya satu.
Dewi bukan peragawati.
Apakah Dewi peragawati?
Dewilah peragawatinya
Dewi (is a) catwalk model.
Dewi is a catwalk model.
She (is) beautiful.
Father (is) at the office.
His son is one.
Dewi is not a catwalk model.
Is Dewi a catwalk model?
Dewi is the catwalk model.
noun
copula verb
adjective
preposition phrase
numeral
negative sentence
interrogative sentence
predicate marker

Subject – Predicate – Adverb

The predicator may be a simple intransitive verb without any affixes. It may also take the prefix ber-, me-, or ter-. Adverbial is an optional element.

Subject Predicate Adverb Meaning
Ibu saya ada di rumah. My mother is at home.
Latihan menari sudah selesai kemarin. The dance rehearsal has concluded yesterday.
Uangnya tersimpan dengan baik. His money was kept safely.

Subject – Predicate – Object – Adverb

The predicator may be a simple verb without any affixes. It may also take the affixes me-, -i, me-i, memer-i, me-kan, memper-kan. Adverbial is an optional element.

Subject Predicate Object Adverb Meaning
Mereka
Dia
Polisi
sudah mengerjakan
mengalami
bekuk
laporan itu
kesulitan
pencuri.
kemarin.
sebagai pelajar.
They have done the report yesterday.
He experienced many difficulties as student.
The police arrested the thief.

Subject – Predicate – Complement – Adverb

The complement may be a noun phrase, an adjective, or a noun phrase preceded by an adjective-like verb. It may be also a noun preceded by an adjective as predicate. Adverbial is an optional element.

Subject
Noun
Predicate
Verb
Complement
Noun
Adverbial
Adverb
Meaning
Ujian
Dia
Ayahnya
tinggal
berdagang
menjadi
dua hari
batik
guru.
lagi.
di Pasar.
The exam is two days away.
He traded batik in the market.
His father becomes a teacher.
Subject
Noun
Predicate
Verb
Complement
Adjective
Meaning
Bajunya
Dia
berwarna
merasa
kuning.
beruntung.
His shirt is yellow.
He felt lucky.
Subject
Noun
Predicate
Adjective
Complement
Noun
Meaning
Mangga itu
Pohon ini
Orang itu
manis
banyak
lambat
rasanya.
buahnya.
jalannya.
That mango is sweet in taste.
This tree has many fruits.
That person are slow in walking.

Subject – Predicate – Object – Complement

The complement may be a noun phrase, an adjective, a noun phrase or a verb.

Subject
Noun
Predicate
Verb
Object
Noun
Complement
Adjective
Meaning
Dia
Masalah itu
merasa
membuat
badannya
dia
lemah. He felt his body weak.
That problem made him angry.
Subject
Noun
Predicate
Verb
Object
Noun
Complement
Noun
Meaning
Dia
Mereka
mengira
menamai
saya
bayi itu
orang Jawa.
Amir.
He thought me a Javanese/He thought I was a Javanese.
They named the baby Amir.
Subject
Noun
Predicate
Verb
Object
Noun
Complement
Verb
Meaning
Dia
Mereka
meyuruh
mengajarkan
saya
kami
keluar.
menari.
He asked me to go out.
They taught us dancing.

Subject – Predicate – Object – Object

The structure has two objects. The first object is indirect object and the second one is direct object. The indirect object is often called the beneficiary of an action.

Subject
Noun
Predicate
Verb
Indirect Object
Noun
Direct Object
Noun
Meaning
Saya
Dia
sedang mencarikan
menawari
adik saya
saya
pekerjaan.
pekerjaan.
I am getting my sister a job.
He offered me a job.

Reference:
Indonesian Grammar Made Easy by Dr. Liaw Yock Fang, TIMES 1996

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