pe-..-an/per-..-an

Confix ‘pe-… -an’ creates an abstract noun that indicates the process of performing the action of what the verb refers to.

Examples

Root Word Meaning pe – an Meaning
raga body, show off peragaan show, display, modeling, exhibition
makam grave pemakaman funeral
bubar dismiss pembubaran dissolution
tinggal remain peninggalan estate, inheritance
dapat earn, get pendapatan income, acquisition
tekan pressure penekanan pressing, emphasizing
sumbat plug, stooper penyumbatan clogging, blockage

Confix ‘per-… -an’forms noun and indicates the result of an action (as opposed to the process) and may also indicate a place or location.

Examples

Root Word Meaning per – an Meaning
masalah problem permasalahan set of problems
janji promise perjanjian agreement
nikah marry pernikahan marriage
empat four perempatan junction, cross-roads
damai peace perdamaian peace
sahabat good friend persahabatan friendship

pe-..-an versus per-..-an

Examples

Root Word Meaning Confix Comparison Meaning
buat do, make per – an perbuatan deed, action, performance, conduct, act
    pe-an pembuatan fabrication, construction, production
hitung calculate per – an perhitungan calculation, computation, consideration
    pe-an penghitungan calculating
pecah break apart per – an perpecahan disunity, disunion
    pe-an pemecahan sollution, fission, breakthrough

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