ke-..-an

Confix or circumfix ‘ke – an’ forma nouns from adjectives, verbs and other classes. Such noun are generally of an abstract nature. It is used to form a noun that identify a state, character or condition in connection with the root word in a general or vague sense.

Examples

Root Word Meaning ke – Root Word – an Meaning
sehat healthy kesehatan health
lapar hungry kelaparan hunger
bersih clean kebersihan cleanliness
merdeka free, independent kemerdekaan freedom, independence
tinggi high ketinggian altitude, elevated place
anggota member keanggotaan membership

To form an adjective with a sense of excessiveness:

Examples

Root Word Meaning ke – Root Word – an Synonym Meaning
dingin cold kedinginan terlalu dingin too cold
besar big kebesaran terlalu besar too big
kecil small kekecilan terlalu kecil too small
merah red kemerahan terlalu merah too red

In a few cases this is not so:

Examples

Root Word Meaning ke – Root Word – an Meaning
berat heavy keberatan objection
merah red kemerahan rather red
malu shy kemaluan genitals
terang clear keterangan explanation

The negative ‘tidak'(not) can combine with some adjectives to form a compound base for ke-..-an nouns, i.e. ke – ROOT WORD – an. These correspond to English npuns with prefix dis- or in-

Examples

Root Word Meaning ke – Root Word – an Meaning
tidak sama unequal ketidak-saman inequality
tidak jujur dishonest ketidak-jujuran dishonesty
tidak adil unjust ketidak-adilan injustice

Several adjectives derived with prefix se- can form the base of a ke-..-an nouns:

Examples

Root Word Meaning ke – Root Word – an Meaning
seimbang blanced keseimbangan balance, equilibrium
sesuai appropriate, suitable kesesuaian suitability, compatibility
seragam uniform keseragaman uniformity

The noun can be formed from an intransitive verb:

Examples

Root Word Meaning ke – Root Word – an Meaning
datang come kedatangan arrival
hidup live kehidupan life
ingin wish keinginan wish, desire

Reference: Indonesian Reference Grammar (Paperback) by James Neil Sneddon

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