Formal Indonesian is taught and studied. It is expected to be used in schools, offices, on public occasions, and in writing. News, interviews on serious topics and announcements are also conducted in formal Indonesian.

This section describes the Indonesian language for English speaking teachers and learners and for any others interested in the language and its structures. The reference grammar provides a practical description of the structure, written in a clear and non-technical manner. It can be readily be used by teachers and senior student who have no linguistic background.

English and Indonesian structures are specifically contrasted if the Indonesian structure is one which causes particularly difficulty for English-speaking learners. In order to provide a practical reference for most user needs this site is aimed for a certain degree of completeness. It can be difficult to conquer a new language, but to set up a business or shop in Indonesia, mastering the Indonesian language can sometimes be essential to the achievement of these goals.

The formal Indonesian can loosely be identified as the language of government, administration and the mass media in the Republic of Indonesia. It is the type of Indonesian in which education takes place and is used by educated people in formal situations, whether written or spoken.

The special needs of non native learners of Indonesian language are taken into account. Indonesian structures are differ significantly from corresponding structures in English. This site describes in all the major structures of Indonesian.

Indonesian Reference Grammar by Dr. James Sneddon
Indonesian: A Comprehensive Grammar by James Sneddon(Dec 26, 1996)
Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian (Pacific Linguistics, 581) by James Sneddon (2006)

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